All Puffed Up – Tim Grollimund Photography

All Puffed Up


A Marine Life Series Column about puffer fish and their toxins


Puffers are related to boxfish, and are also toxic, but in a different way.  I found many references to two toxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX), which are nerve agents.  They are chemically distinct, but act on the nervous system similarly.  And of course we have all heard the stories of death-by-sashimi in Japan if the dish is not prepared correctly.  TTX is listed as the second most poisonous vertebrate toxin after the golden poison frog.  While trunkfish are notorious for emitting their protective toxin, puffers keep it bottled up until they are opened.

Based on what I found, it’s not the puffer itself, but the bacteria that it ingests that’s the poison.  These two toxins are sourced from bacteria.  STX is attributed more to shellfish than fin fish, but both are found in puffers under the right conditions.  Other fish eat the same bacteria, but don’t accumulate the toxins. Also, water quality characteristics have a lot to do with the level of bacteria ingested by marine organisms.

I found an old article by a fellow in Indian River, Florida that called them “tasty toadies”.  He used to eat them as a kid growing up around the water.  As I poked around a bit more, I found an article that details toxic events and deaths from puffer fish from Indian River.  Looks like somebody has a lot to be thankful for."

About the author

Tim Grollimund

Tim is based in Key Largo, Florida. He wrote the scuba diving column for the local newspaper, The Reporter, for over three years, and also served as a Working Group member and Alternate Representative on the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council. His ebooks are all based on his newspaper columns. Each ebook has a collection of underwater images shot by Tim. The ebooks cover a wide range of marine life species and ocean conservation topics.

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